Malignant by Vinay Prasad

Oncology’s Leading Gadfly


  • Benjamin Chin-Yee Division of Hematology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry; Rotman Institute for Philosophy, Western University, Canada



Oncology, Precision Medicine, Clinical Trials, Cancer, Drug Development


Abola, Matthew V. and Vinay Prasad. 2016. “Industry Funding of Cancer Patient Advocacy Organizations.” Letter. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 91, no. 11: 1668–70.

Bien, Jeffrey and Vinay Prasad. 2016. “Future Jobs of FDA’s Haematology-Oncology Reviewers.” Letter. BMJ 354: i5055.

Boutron, Isabelle, Douglas G. Altman, Sally Hopewell, Francisco Vera-Badillo, Ian Tannock and Philippe Ravaud. 2014. “Impact of Spin in the Abstracts of Articles Reporting Results of Randomized Controlled Trials in the Field of Cancer: The SPIIN Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of Clinical Oncology 32, no. 36: 4120–26.

Cartier, Shannon, Bin Zhang, Virginia M. Rosen, Victoria Zarotsky, J. Blake Bartlett, Pralay Mukhopadhyay, Samuel Wagner and Catherine Davis. 2015. “Relationship between Treatment Effects on Progression-Free Survival and Overall Survival in Multiple Myeloma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Published Clinical Trial Data.” Oncology Research and Treatment 38, no. 3: 88–94.

Cartwright, Nancy. 2007. “Are RCTs the Gold Standard?” BioSocieties 2, no. 1: 11–20.

Chen, Emmerson Y., Alyson Haslam and Vinay Prasad. 2020. “FDA Acceptance of Surrogate End Points for Cancer Drug Approval: 1992–2019.” JAMA Internal Medicine 180, no. 6: 912–14.

Chin-Yee, Benjamin H. 2014. “Underdetermination in Evidence-Based Medicine.” Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20, no. 6: 921–27.

Deaton, Angus and Nancy Cartwright. 2018. “Understanding and Misunderstanding Randomized Controlled Trials.” Social Science & Medicine 210: 2–21.

Goldenberg, Maya J. 2009. “Iconoclast or Creed? Objectivism, Pragmatism, and the Hierarchy of Evidence.” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52, no. 2: 168–87.

Hey, Spencer Phillips. 2015. “Judging Quality and Coordination in Biomarker Diagnostic Development.” THEORIA: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 30, no. 2: 207–27.

Ioannidis, John P.A. 2018. “Randomized Controlled Trials: Often Flawed, Mostly Useless, Clearly Indispensable: A Commentary on Deaton and Cartwright.” Social Science & Medicine 210: 53–56.

Kaestner, Victoria, Jonathan B. Edmiston and Vinay Prasad. 2018. “The Relation between Publication Rate and Financial Conflict of Interest among Physician Authors of High-Impact Oncology Publications: An Observational Study.” CMAJ Open 6, no. 1: E57–E62.

Kim, Chul and Vinay Prasad. 2016. “Strength of Validation for Surrogate End Points Used in the US Food and Drug Administration’s Approval of Oncology Drugs.” Mayo Clinic Proceedings 91, no. 6: 713–25.

Kimmelman, Jonathan, Benjamin Carlisle and Mithat Gönen. 2017. “Drug Development at the Portfolio Level Is Important for Policy, Care Decisions and Human Protections.” JAMA 318, no. 11:1003–04.

Kumar, Shaji K., Simon J. Harrison, Michele Cavo, Javier de la Rubia, Rakesh Popat, Cristina Gasparetto, Vania Hungria, Hans Salwender, Kenshi Suzuki, Inho Kim et al. 2020. “Venetoclax or Placebo in Combination with Bortezomib and Dexamethasone in Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma (BELLINI): A Randomised, Double-Blind, Multicentre, Phase 3 Trial.” Lancet Oncology 21, no. 12: 1630–42.

Lemoine, Maël. 2017. “Neither from Words, nor from Visions: Understanding P-Medicine from Innovative Treatments.” Lato Sensu: Revue de la Société de Philosophie des Sciences 4, no. 2: 12–23.

London, Alex John and Jonathan Kimmelman. 2019. “Clinical Trial Portfolios: A Critical Oversight in Human Research Ethics, Drug Regulation, and Policy.” Hastings Center Report 49, no. 4: 31–41.

Mitchell, Aaron P., Ethan M. Basch and Stacie B. Dusetzina. 2016. “Financial Relationships with Industry among National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guideline Authors.” JAMA Oncology 2, no. 12: 1628–31.

Munshi, Nikhil C., Herve Avet-Loiseau, Andy C. Rawstron, Roger G. Owen, J. Anthony Child, Anjan Thakurta, Paul Sherrigton et al. 2017. “Association of Minimal Residual Disease with Superior Survival Outcomes in Patients with Multiple Myeloma: A Meta-analysis.” JAMA Oncology 3, no. 1: 28–35.

Papaemmanuil, Elli, Moritz Gerstung, Lars Bullinger, Verena I. Gaidzik, Peter Paschka, Nicola D. Roberts, Nicola E. Potter et al. 2016. “Genomic Classification and Prognosis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.” New England Journal of Medicine 374, no. 23: 2209–21.

Plutynski, Anya. 2020. “Why Precision Oncology Is Not Very Precise (and Why This Should Not Surprise Us).” Philosophical Issues in Precision Medicine. Springer, Netherlands.

Prasad, Vinayak K. 2020. Malignant: How Bad Policy and Bad Evidence Harm People with Cancer. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Prasad, Vinayak K. and Adam S. Cifu. 2019. Ending Medical Reversal: Improving Outcomes, Saving Lives. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Stegenga, Jacob. 2018. Medical Nihilism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tabery, James. 2020. “‘Personalized Medicine’ Wasn’t Personal; ‘Precision Medicine’ Isn’t Precise.” Institute for Philosophy in Biology and Medicine, Zoom talk, 15 December.

Tao, Derrick L., Aaron Boothby, Joel McLouth and Vinay Prasad. “Financial Conflicts of Interest among Hematologist-Oncologists on Twitter.” Letter. JAMA Internal Medicine 177, no. 3: 425–27.

Tonelli, Mark R. 2018. “Clinical Judgement in Precision Medicine.” Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24, no. 3: 646–48.

Worrall, John. 2002. “What Evidence in Evidence‐Based Medicine?” Philosophy of Science 69, no. 53: S316–S330.




How to Cite

Chin-Yee, B. (2021). Malignant by Vinay Prasad: Oncology’s Leading Gadfly. Philosophy of Medicine, 2(1).



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